Lymphangitis is an inflammation of the lymph vessels. Symptoms usually include swelling, redness, warmth, pain or red streaking around the affected area. Lymphedema is the chronic pooling of lymph fluid in the tissue. It usually starts in the feet or lower legs. It's also a side-effect of some surgical procedures. Lymphocytosis is a high lymphocyte count. It can be caused by an infection, blood cancer, lymphoma, or autoimmune disorders that are accompanied by chronic swelling.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Lymphatic disease Lymphatic disease is a class of disorders which directly affect the components of the lymphatic system. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Lymphoma is a usually malignant cancer. Lymphangitis Lymphangitis is an inflammation of the lymph vessels. Lymphedema Lymphedema is the chronic pooling of lymph fluid in the tissue. In this case, the lymphatic system enables our immune system to respond appropriately.
If the immune system is not able to fight off these micro-organisms, or pathogens, they can be harmful and even fatal. A number of different immune cells and special molecules work together to fight off the unwanted pathogens. The lymphatic system produces white blood cells, known as lymphocytes.
There are two types of lymphocyte, T cells and B cells. They both travel through the lymphatic system. As they reach the lymph nodes, they are filtered and become activated by contact with viruses, bacteria, foreign particles, and so on in the lymph fluid. From this stage, the pathogens, or invaders, are known as antigens. As the lymphocytes become activated, they form antibodies and start to defend the body.
They can also produce antibodies from memory if they have already encountered the specific pathogen in the past. Collections of lymph nodes are concentrated in the neck, armpits, and groin. We become aware of these on one or both sides of the neck when we develop so-called "swollen glands" in response to an illness. It is in the lymph nodes that the lymphocytes first encounter the pathogens, communicate with each other, and set off their defensive response. Activated lymphocytes then pass further up the lymphatic system so that they can reach the bloodstream.
Now, they are equipped to spread the immune response throughout the body, through the blood circulation. The lymphatic system and the action of lymphocytes, of which the body has trillions, form part of what immunologists call the "adaptive immune response.
The lymphatic system can stop working properly if nodes, ducts, vessels, or lymph tissues become blocked, infected, inflamed, or cancerous. Cancer that starts in the lymphatic system is known as lymphoma. It is the most serious lymphatic disease. Hodgkin lymphoma affects a specific type of white blood cell known as Reed-Sternberg cells. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma refers to types that do not involve these cells.
Cancer that affects the lymphatic system is usually a secondary cancer. This means it has spread from a primary tumor , such as the breast, to nearby or regional lymph nodes.
Sometimes, a lymph node swells because it becomes infected. The nodes may fill with pus , creating an abscess. The skin over the nodes may be red or streaky. Localized lymphadenitis affects the nodes near the infection, for example, as a result of tonsilitis. Generalized lymphadenitis can happen when a disease spreads through the bloodstream and affects the whole body.
Causes range from sepsis to an upper respiratory tract infection. If the lymphatic system does not work properly, for example, if there is an obstruction, fluid may not drain effectively. As the fluid builds up, this can lead to swelling, for example in an arm or leg. The skin may feel tight and hard, and skin problems may occur. In some cases, fluid may leak through the skin. Obstruction can result from surgery, radiation therapy , injury, a condition known as lymphatic filariasis, or—rarely—a congenital disorder.
The "swollen glands," that occur, for example, in the neck during a throat infection, are in fact enlarged lymph nodes. Reaction to an infection: The lymph nodes react when foreign material is presented to immune cells through the lymph that is drained from infected tissue. Direct infection of the lymph nodes: The nodes can become infected and inflamed as a result of certain infections that need prompt antibiotic treatment.
Most people who have swollen glands with a cold or flu do not need to see a doctor. Also known as infectious mononucleosis , or mono, this is a viral infection that can one cause longer-lasting swelling, a sore throat , and fatigue.
This is more common in children than in adults. It occurs when the lymph nodes at the back of the mouth are fighting infection, usually viral, but sometimes bacterial. This bacterial infection is commonly called " strep throat. Children are more prone to swollen lymph nodes because their immune systems are still developing their responses to infectious microbes.
In October , researchers found that the brain has lymphatic vessels , allowing it to process "waste" leaked from the blood vessels. This could provide new insight into the relationship between the brain and the immune system. In June , scientists announced that they had discovered a previously unknown lymphatic system that linked it to the central nervous system CNS and the brain.
In May , researchers said that the lymphatic system may play a role in helping the heart to recover after a cardiac arrest. Article last updated by Yvette Brazier on Fri 23 February All references are available in the References tab.
The adaptive immune system. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th edition. Overview of the lymphatic system. Introduction to the lymphatic system. The cause is unknown but thought to be related to infection. Read more on Sydney Children's Hospitals Network website.
Hodgkin's Lymphoma covers multiple types of conditions that attack the immune system. Learn more about causes, diagnosis and treatments with CanTeen. Read more on CanTeen website. Lymphoma occurs when abnormal white blood cells lymphocytes in the lymphatic system grow in an uncontrolled way.
Read more on Cancer Australia website. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma cover multiple types of conditions that attack the immune system. An overview of myeloma including types, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and finding support. Information on Hodgkin disease including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and support. Here, you can download a range of breast cancer resources in Chinese, Vietnamese, Arabic, Greek and Italian. Lymphoedema usually develops gradually and can occur months or even years after treatment is finished.
Theres no known cure for lymphoedema, but it can be managed with appropriate care. Information on Non-Hodgkin lymphoma including risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia WM is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder characterised by bone marrow infiltration and production of monoclonal immunoglobulin.
It is a kind of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma which can lead to death. Alkylating agents are believed to be effective in treatment of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia for alleviating symptoms and elongating survival time. Read more on Cochrane Australasian Centre website.