Where Outstanding CAREERS Get Started
Lawrence, providing greater protection for biodiversity and for the social, cultural and economic activities of the 5 Canadian provinces whose coastal inhabitants depend on it. Monday September 10 Ag News T This will provide a strong body of learning and evidence to refine the approach and share it with other municipalities across Canada. Earlage or snaplage is harvested at closer to percent dry matter. You bequeath take how to do your job exercising in a comely way.
The Nutritional Value of Chicken
In addition, yoghurt in particular is a rich source of dietary minerals, including calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc. The amount of free amino acids is increased due to the pre-digestion of milk proteins by the activity of bacterial cultures, allowing for better protein digestibility. Large cohort studies conducted in the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark found that fermented milk products were significantly associated with decreased disease states.
These disease states include bladder cancer, cardiovascular disease, and periondontitis. Although harmful compounds, including mycotoxins and biogenic amines , can contaminate fermented dairy products, strict regulatory standards are set by international agencies for the monitoring of these substances. Fortunately, reliable methods to detect these compounds have been developed.
The fermentation by LAB is recognized as a simple and valuable method to maintain and enhance the safety, nutritional quality, and the shelf life of vegetables, particularly when access to fresh vegetables is limited. The most commercially significant fermented vegetables are:. Typically the fermentation of vegetables occurs spontaneously just from the bacteria already present on the surface, but starter cultures can also be used. Starter cultures speed up the fermentation process, ensure reliability of the final product, prevent the risk of fermentation failure, and assist with the inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms.
Lactic fermentation has been shown to enhance the nutritional value of vegetables. When used with maize, soybeans, and sorghum a grain , it reduces phytate content , a well-known inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption. It is clear to me that the fermentation process boosts the nutritional quality of foods. Now, what about the impact of the actual bacteria carrying out the fermentation? Understanding of the importance of the human gut microbiota and microbiome to health and disease has expanded rapidly with the advances in DNA sequencing technology.
The gut micro biota is the microorganisms that inhabit the gut, while the gut micro biome is the total genome content of the gut microbiota. Research in this field has focused on what role this complex bacterial community plays in human health and disease, and how it can be altered. Diet is one of the main influences on the human gut microbiota.
These food-ingested bacteria can be found in great numbers in fermented foods and as probiotics. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms in food that confer a health benefit on the host. I wish I could be alive years from now to see how research into the microbiome will change the practice of medicine. While some LAB species are thought to be permanent inhabitants of the gastrointestinal GI tract, other species, such as L.
A recent study in Scientific Reports directly compared the impact of fermented and non-fermented milk products on the gut microbiome of subjects with irritable bowel syndrome IBS. The fermented milk product altered the species of the gut microbiota more than the non-fermented milk product.
Bacteria derived from food appear to be members of the variable human microbiome with the ability to alter the gut microbiome. But do the bacteria we ingest in common fermented foods, such as yoghurt and my new favourite fermented food, kimchi actually survive once we eat them?
In other words, are common fermented foods a direct source of bacteria that contribute to our microbiome? Before ingested bacteria can have a beneficial impact in the human intestinal system, they must first be able to survive within the food matrix , the nutrient and non-nutrient components of food plus their interactions at a molecular level. Many factors can affect probiotic viability in the food matrix, such as the acidity, oxygen availability, concentration of sugars, moisture content, and the storage temperature.
Immediately after swallowing, these poor little microbes must be able to withstand the hostile environment of the human upper GI tract, which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum the first part of the small intestine. After being chewed and mixed with enzymes from saliva in the mouth, the bacteria from fermented foods then pass down the throat and esophagus and into the stomach. Most ingested bacteria will not survive this first part of the journey. Those bacteria that do survive then enter the remainder of the small intestine, where the pH rises to over 6, but they are exposed to bile and many more digestive enzymes, including amylase which breaks starches into simple sugars , lipase which breaks down fats , and protease which further breaks down proteins.
Some bacterial strains can recover, and even grow in the small intestine, and these cells must then continue their journey on to the colon. Some of these bacteria are found in the soil around the grasses that ruminants eat; they are taken into the animal, proliferate, form part of their gut flora , and continue to produce vitamin B There are no naturally-occurring notable vegetable dietary sources of the vitamin, so vegans and vegetarians are advised   to take a supplement or fortified foods.
Otherwise, most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B 12 from consuming animal products including meat, milk, eggs, and fish. Vitamin B 12 supplements are available in single agent or multivitamin tablets; and pharmaceutical preparations may be given by intramuscular injection. The most common cause of vitamin B 12 deficiency in developed countries is impaired absorption due to a loss of gastric intrinsic factor , which must be bound to food-source B 12 in order for absorption to occur.
Another group affected are those on long term antacid therapy,  using proton pump inhibitors , H2 blockers or other antacids. This condition maybe characterised by limb neuropathy or a blood disorder called pernicious anemia , a type of megaloblastic anemia. Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology. Deficiency is more likely after age 60, and increases in incidence with advancing age.
Other causes of vitamin B 12 deficiency are much less frequent. Vitamin B 12 is produced industrially via bacterial fermentation. Vitamin B 12 total synthesis has been achieved, but has no practical value.
Vitamin B 12 was discovered as a result of its relationship to pernicious anemia. B 12 is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. The structure of B 12 is based on a corrin ring, which is similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme. The central metal ion is cobalt. Four of the six coordination sites are provided by the corrin ring, and a fifth by a dimethylbenzimidazole group.
Historically, the covalent C-Co bond is one of the first examples of carbon-metal bonds to be discovered in biology. The hydrogenases and, by necessity, enzymes associated with cobalt utilization, involve metal-carbon bonds. Vitamin B 12 is a generic descriptor name referring to a collection of cobalt and corrin ring molecules which are defined by their particular vitamin function in the body.
All of the substrate cobalt-corrin molecules from which B 12 is made must be synthesized by bacteria. After this synthesis is complete, the human body has the ability except in rare cases to convert any form of B 12 to an active form, by means of enzymatically removing certain prosthetic chemical groups from the cobalt atom and replacing them with others.
The four vitamers of B 12 are all deeply red colored crystals and water solutions, due to the color of the cobalt-corrin complex. The current EAR for vitamin B 12 for women and men ages 14 and up is 2.
RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. RDA for pregnancy equals 2. RDA for lactation equals 2. For infants up to 12 months the Adequate Intake AI is 0. For children ages 1—13 years the RDA increases with age from 0. Because 10 to 30 percent of older people may be unable to effectively absorb vitamin B 12 naturally occurring in foods, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with vitamin B 12 or a supplement containing vitamin B In the case of vitamin B 12 there is no UL, as there is no human data for adverse effects from high doses.
For women and men over age 18 the Adequate Intake AI is set at 4. AI for pregnancy is 4. For children aged 1—17 years the AIs increase with age from 1. These AIs are higher than the U. The original deadline to be in compliance was July 28, , but on September 29, the FDA released a proposed rule that extended the deadline to January 1, for large companies and January 1, for small companies. Most omnivorous people in developed countries obtain enough vitamin B 12 from consuming animal products including, meat, fish, eggs, and milk.
B 12 is only produced in nature by certain bacteria , and archaea. Feces are a rich source of vitamin B 12 , and are eaten by many animals, including dogs and cats. These animals ingest cecotropes which have been expelled in their feces. Animals store vitamin B 12 in liver and muscle and some pass the vitamin into their eggs and milk ; meat, liver, eggs and milk are therefore sources of the vitamin for other animals as well as humans. Natural sources of B 12 include dried and fermented plant foods, such as tempeh , and laver , a seaweed.
The UK Vegan Society , the Vegetarian Resource Group, and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine , among others, recommend that every vegan who is not consuming adequate B 12 from fortified foods take supplements.
Foods for which B 12 -fortified versions are widely available include breakfast cereals , soy products, energy bars , and nutritional yeast.
Vitamin B 12 is included in multivitamin pills; and in some countries grain-based foods such as bread and pasta are fortified with B The vitamin can also be a prescription product via injection or other means. Sublingual methylcobalamin , which contains no cyanide , is available in 5-mg tablets.
The metabolic fate and biological distribution of methylcobalamin are expected to be similar to that of other sources of vitamin B 12 in the diet. Injection and patches are sometimes used if digestive absorption is impaired, but this course of action may not be necessary with high-potency oral supplements such as 0.
Even pernicious anemia can be treated entirely by the oral route. If the person has inborn errors in the methyltransfer pathway cobalamin C disease, combined methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria , treatment with intravenous, intramuscular hydroxocobalamin or transdermal B 12 is needed. Pseudovitamin-B 12 refers to B 12 -like analogues that are biologically inactive in humans and yet found to be present alongside B 12 in humans,  many food sources including animals  , and possibly supplements and fortified foods.
Vitamin B 12 functions as a coenzyme , meaning that its presence is required for enzyme-catalyzed reactions. In humans, two major coenzyme B 12 -dependent enzyme families corresponding to the first two reaction types, are known. These are typified by the following two enzymes:. If folate is present in quantity, then of the two absolutely vitamin B 12 -dependent enzyme-family reactions in humans, the MUT -family reactions show the most direct and characteristic secondary effects, focusing on the nervous system see below.
This is because the MTR methyltransferase-type reactions are involved in regenerating folate, and thus are less evident when folate is in good supply. Since the late s, folic acid has begun to be added to fortify flour in many countries, so folate deficiency is now more rare. At the same time, since DNA synthetic-sensitive tests for anemia and erythrocyte size are routinely done in even simple medical test clinics so that these folate-mediated biochemical effects are more often directly detected , the MTR -dependent effects of B 12 deficiency are becoming apparent not as anemia due to DNA-synthetic problems as they were classically , but now mainly as a simple and less obvious elevation of homocysteine in the blood and urine homocysteinuria.
This condition may result in long-term damage to arteries and in clotting stroke and heart attack , but this effect is difficult to separate from other common processes associated with atherosclerosis and aging. The specific myelin damage resulting from B 12 deficiency, even in the presence of adequate folate and methionine, is more specifically and clearly a vitamin deficiency problem. It has been connected to B 12 most directly by reactions related to MUT, which is absolutely required to convert methylmalonyl coenzyme A into succinyl coenzyme A.
Failure of this second reaction to occur results in elevated levels of MMA, a myelin destabilizer. Excessive MMA will prevent normal fatty acid synthesis , or it will be incorporated into fatty acids itself rather than normal malonic acid. If this abnormal fatty acid subsequently is incorporated into myelin, the resulting myelin will be too fragile, and demyelination will occur. Although the precise mechanism or mechanisms are not known with certainty, the result is subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord.
Vitamin B 12 -dependent MTR reactions may also have neurological effects, through an indirect mechanism. Adequate methionine which, like folate, must otherwise be obtained in the diet, if it is not regenerated from homocysteine by a B 12 dependent reaction is needed to make S -adenosyl methionine SAMe , which is in turn necessary for methylation of myelin sheath phospholipids. This will provide a strong body of learning and evidence to refine the approach and share it with other municipalities across Canada.
Lawrence will provide greater protection for conservation and biodiversity as well as for social, cultural and economic values of the five Canadian provinces whose coastal inhabitants depend on it. With their combined skills in communications and strategic planning, outreach and community engagement, the Canadian Freshwater Alliance and Freshwater Future Canada are taking a coordinated approach to work with residents, commercial interests, the farming community and other Lake Erie stakeholders.
A cross-sectoral action plan defines targets and timelines to begin to arrest the polluting effects of algal blooms by reducing phosphorus and nutrient loading to Lake Erie. After decades of negotiations, the boundaries for Thaidene Nene were recently approved by the people of Lutsel K'e, the government of the Northwest Territories, and Canada's Federal Government.
When ratified, Thaidene Nene will be among Canada's largest protected areas comprised of 6. TNC will play a key role ensuring legislative protection is in place as well as park infrastructure, and community-led management and monitoring plans to promote a conservation economy and protection for Thaidene Nene's lands, wildlife and water resources.
WCS will play a lead role in promoting awareness, understanding and adoption of the Key Biodiversity Areas KBA international standard, a globally agreed methodology to identify sites that contribute significantly to the world's biodiversity, and where it applies to important sites in Canada.
KBAs recognized in Canada will contribute to the government's commitment to increase protection of its lands and waters, and will provide crucial information for environmental assessments and land-use planning in an effort to mitigate or offset the impacts of infrastructure and the built environment across the country. WWF Canada's ongoing work in the six Inuvialuit communities of the Western Arctic is focused on efforts to build community-based mapping to identify ecologically and culturally significant areas in marine and terrestrial environments.
A pilot community conservation plan is under development in Paulatuk, and data collection continues to be carried out in Sachs Harbour and Ulukhaktok. WWF is also working with communities to develop capacity for renewable energy and sustainable fisheries, empowering Inuit voices for conservation planning, and zoning to protect local environments from the encroachments of industrial activity. CARFAC seeks to develop codes of best practice for artists engaged in public art commissions as well as artists training at colleges and universities to become successful entrepreneurs - and for organizing, maintaining and protecting archival materials held by Artist-Run Centres.
In addition, codes of best practice are being developed to provide ethical and practical standards for the visual, media and craft-based arts sector in Ontario. The Canadian Centre for Architecture will remodel its website functionality by developing an advanced editorial platform, search tools and programs that link together multiple complex system databases, and easy access to a broad range of CCA resources including collections, research, the library, past and present exhibitions, public programming and e-commerce.
With these upgrades the CCA seeks to significantly improve the online visitor experience, already familiar to national and international audiences. As an international research centre and museum, the CCA aims to raise awareness of the role of architecture in society, to promote top-level research in this field and to encourage innovation in design practice.
It holds an outstanding collection of archives and oral histories of individual architects, conceptual studies, drawings, plans, models, prints, photographs, related artefacts and ephemera, and international research publications.
Scheduled to open in First of a three-year grant. Towards research and publication of 3 issues to be published in It creates space for an independent public forum through which Northerners and those interested in the North can engage with one another about public policies and issues affecting Northerners. This landmark gallery will display and interpret the ROM's spectacular collection of once-living organisms, ancient animals and plants.
Using colourful technological animation the Dawn of Life Gallery will explore through the fossil record and explain where life came from and how it evolved and diversified over millions of years - from tiny single-celled beginnings billions of years ago, through the first steps on land, to the appearance of dinosaurs and mammals over million years ago.
The development of this gallery is in process and the opening date as yet unannounced. The Dictionary of Old English DOE defines the vocabulary of the first six centuries of the English language - using 21st century technology and research tools. The DOE has an international Advisory Committee and the editors consult with scholars worldwide on specialized vocabulary such as legal, medical, and botanical terms.
When completed the DOE will join the Middle English Dictionary and the contemporary Oxford English Dictionary to provide a complete vocabulary of the English language and its evolution. Mining Watch continues to press for reforming Ontario's Environmental Assessment practices broadly, and in particular as they apply to mining. The Institute will promote higher Canadian standards of EA practice to be applied consistently to mines across Ontario so that impacts to biodiversity, aquatic systems and water resources can be properly evaluated for approvals - and mitigation measures taken where needed.
Second of a three-year grant. Under New Brunswick's Clean Water Act a fully implemented Water Classification system will provide a scientific baseline of water quality across the province's nearly 40 watersheds, tracking changes over time and providing a formal process for enforcement purposes. Waterways shared with the state of Maine will now be able to provide similar protection using standardized measures across the two borders.
Local watershed groups continue to provide data collection, stewardship and local action to help support watershed-level governance for the province. Under the new Acid Rain Mitigation Plan for Southwest Nova Scotia thirteen priority watersheds have been identified for mapping, correlating those with high aluminum levels to those with low pH levels to determine optimal targeted liming activities in these areas.
The watersheds were identified by the Southern Upland Priority Group as top habitat areas for wild salmon restoration.
The mapping project will also use data on areas of acid rock drainage and road density from the recent Nova Scotia Watershed Assessment Plan to create a tailored mitigation and restoration plan for potentially re-building salmon stocks.
By improving wetland conservation and restoration, the Lake Simcoe Georgian Bay Wetland Collaborative will work to reduce phosphorus and other nutrients flowing into Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay. The initiative has 3 main components: These components will combine to reduce nutrient and sediment loading, improve habitat conservation, and address gaps in research and wetland mapping to inform environmental decision making. The federal, provincial and municipal governments have now committed to building the long-awaited Combined Sewer Overflow Tunnels for the Ottawa River to handle excess stormwater and wastewater.
Over the past year Ecology Ottawa and Sierra Club Foundation have provided significant inputs to community-wide stormwater-management retrofit studies and promoted overall support for Ottawa's new Water Environment Strategy for water management. Ecology Ottawa has continued to build community engagement with local leaders to protect and restore the watershed's network of rivers, streams and small creeks flowing through Ottawa's various neighbourhoods.
Third of a three-year grant. Over the past year Environmental Defence has continued to refine its Greenbelt strategy, closing loopholes against unsustainable development in favour of smart, affordable growth and protection for productive farmland and regional food supply. Second of a two-year grant. The Green Budget Coalition brings together 14 of Canada's leading environmental and conservation organizations to analyze the most pressing issues affecting environmental sustainability in Canada, and to make recommendations to the federal government as to strategic fiscal and budgetary opportunities.
The 3 strategic agendas for the federal budget were: Protection measures for connected natural features and priority areas identified in the Kawartha Natural Heritage System have been widely approved for integration into local planning policies of regional municipalities in the Kawarthas.
The Land Trust has been a key player in coordinating on-the- ground stewardship, conservation, and land securement with partners across the region and continues to provide essential leadership in coordinating data inputs, mapping, information gathering and public outreach contributed by the partnership organizations and agencies working to have the Kawarthas, Naturally Connected successfully implemented.